Eye Health and Function

Eye Health and Function

The Macular Pigment Research Group (MPRG) within the NRCI has studied the role of nutrition for optimising visual
function and the prevention of blindness. The focus of this research is on naturally occurring plant pigments known as carotenoids. Carotenoids play important roles throughout the body, but three particular carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin) are found at the back of the eye (the macula) where they are collectively known as macular pigment.

The main part of this research was the European Research Council funded CREST (Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trials) project and it comprised of two different arms: CREST Normal and CREST AMD.

CREST successfully assessed the impact of enriched macular pigment with all three macular carotenoids on visual performance and blindness. Of note, this was the first study to test the effects of supplementation with all three macular carotenoids, including meso-zeaxanthin, in the context of a sufficiently powered, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

CREST Normal recruited 105 volunteers and investigated the ways in which enrichment of macular pigment with the macular carotenoids impacted on the visual performance and experience of normal subjects without eye disease.

CREST AMD recruited 121 volunteers and investigated ways in which enrichment of macular pigment with the macular carotenoids impacted on the visual performance and experience of subjects with early age-r elated macular degeneration (AMD).

  • Professor Stephen Beatty

    Professor Stephen Beatty is the Director of the Macular Pigment…

  • Professor John Nolan

    Professor John Nolan is the Principal Investigator of the Macular…

Article Author(s) Journal Year
Serum and macular response to carotenoid-enriched egg supplementation in human subjects: the Egg Xanthophyll Intervention clinical Trial (EXIT). Kelly D, Nolan JM, Howard AN, Stack J, Akuffo KO, Moran R, Thurnham DI, Dennison J, Meagher KA, Beatty S 2016
The evidence informing the surgeon's selection of intraocular lens on the basis of light transmittance properties. Li X, Kelly D, Nolan JM, Dennison JL, Beatty S 2016
A review of the evidence germane to the putative protective role of the macular carotenoids for age-related macular degeneration Nolan JM, Loughman J, Beatty S John Nolan 2012
Macular carotenoid supplementation in subjects with atypical spatial profiles of macular pigment Akkali MC, Loughman J, Howard AN, Beatty S John Nolan 2012
Profiles of macular pigment optical density and their changes following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: Letter Beatty S John Nolan 2012
Education is positively associated with macular pigment: the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) Feeney J, Kenny RA, Cronin H, O'Regan C, Savva GM, Loughman J, Finucane C, Connolly E, Meagher K, Beatty S John Nolan 2012
Serum response to supplemental macular carotenoids in subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration Thurnham DI, Beatty S, Howard AN, Connolly E, Cummins W, Nolan JM Katie Meagher 2013
Impact of dietary carotenoid deprivation on macular pigment and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin Nolan JM, Beatty S John Nolan 2012
The impact of macular pigment augmentation on visual performance using different carotenoid formulations Nolan JM, Howard AN, Connolly E, Meagher K, Beatty S John Nolan 2012
The association between macular pigment optical density and CFH, ARMS2, C2/BF, and C3 genotype Nolan JM, McKay GJ, Beatty S John Nolan 2011
Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in response to weight loss Beatty S, Stack J, Harrison M, Greene I, McBrinn S, Carroll P, Nolan JM John Nolan 2011
Supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: response, stability, and safety Beatty S, Loughman J, Howard AN, Louw MS, Nolan JM John Nolan 2011
Psychophysical impact and optical and morphological characteristics of symptomatic non-advanced cataract Nolan J, Loughman J, Stack J, Higgins G, Cassidy L, Beatty S John Nolan 2011
Visual perceptions induced by intravitreous injections of therapeutic agents Nolan J, Ormonde GO, Beatty S John Nolan 2011
26th Hohenheim consensus conference, September 11, 2010 scientific substantiation of health claims: evidence-based nutrition Aggett PJ, Anton R, Bernstein PS, Blumberg J, Heaney RP, Henry J, Nolan JM, Richardson DP, van Ommen B, Witkamp RF, Rijkers GT, Z John Nolan 2011
Update on modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration O'Regan S, O'Regan G, Beatty S John Nolan 2010
Macular pigment optical density in an ageing Irish population: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing Kenny R, O'Regan C, Cronin H, Loughman J, Connolly EE, Kearney P, Loane E, Beatty S John Nolan 2010
The relationship between macular pigment and visual performance Akkali MC, Beatty S, Scanlon G, Davison PA, O'Dwyer V, Cantwell T, Major P, Stack J, Nolan JM John Nolan 2010
Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience Davison P.A, Nolan JM, Akkali M.C, Beatty S John Nolan 2010
Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with macular pigment optical density McKay GJ, Nolan JM, Beatty S John Nolan 2010
A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking Beatty S, Loane E, Akkali MC, Connolly EE, Stack J, Nolan JM John Nolan 2010
Augmentation of macular pigment following supplementation with all three macular carotenoids: an exploratory study Beatty S, Thurnham DI, Loughman J, Howard AN, Stack J, Nolan JM John Nolan 2010
Effect on refractive outcomes after cataract surgery of intraocular lens constant personalization using the Haigis formula Cassidy L, Ng E, Loughman J, Nolan J, Stack J, Beatty S John Nolan 2010
Augmentation of macular pigment following implantation of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses at the time of cataract surgery O'Reilly P, Loughman J, Stack J, Loane E, Connolly E, Beatty S John Nolan 2009
Psychophysical function in age-related maculopathy Nolan J, Chakravarthy U, Beatty S John Nolan 2009
Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile Galea M, Loane E, Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan JM John Nolan 2009
Risk factors for age-related maculopathy Keane PA, O'Neill EC, Altaie RW, Loane E, Neelam K, Nolan JM, Beatty S John Nolan 2009
The utility of using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP) to measure macular pigment in patients with age-related macular degeneration Hammond BR, Nolan JM, Wooten BR, Mammen A, Smollon W, Snodderly DM John Nolan 2008
Diet and risk factors for age-related maculopathy Nolan JM, Stack J, Greenberg D, Kyle J, Maddock L, Beatty S John Nolan 2008
Spatial profile of macular pigment and its relationship to foveal architecture Stringham JM, Beatty S, Snodderly DM John Nolan 2008
Transport and retinal capture of lutein and zeaxanthin with reference to age-related macular degeneration Nolan JM, O'Donovan O, Bhosale P, Bernstein PS, Beatty S John Nolan 2008
The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy Kelliher C, Beatty S, Nolan JM John Nolan 2008
Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration: longitudinal data and better techniques of measurement are needed van Kuijk FJ, Chakravarthy U John Nolan 2008
Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of its constituent carotenoids following supplemental lutein and zeaxanthin: the LUNA study Beatty S, Nolan JM, Hense HW, Heimes B, Austermann U, Fobker M, Pauleikhoff D John Nolan 2007
The relationships between macular pigment optical density and its constituent carotenoids in diet and serum Stack J, O'Connell E, Beatty S John Nolan 2007
Risk factors for age-related maculopathy are associated with a relative lack of macular pigment Stack J, O' Donovan O, Loane E, Beatty S John Nolan 2007
Measurement of macular pigment optical density using two different heterochromatic flicker photometers Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan JM John Nolan 2007
Macular carotenoids and age-related maculopathy Neelam K, Nolan J, Au Eong KG, Beatty S John Nolan 2006
Monthly consistency of macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin Stack J, Mellerio J, Godhinio M, O'Donovan O, Neelam K, Beatty S John Nolan 2006
Macular pigment and ocular biometry Nolan J, Loane E, Stack J, O'Donovan O, Au Eong KG, Beatty S John Nolan 2006
Macular pigment levels following successful macular hole surgery O'Gorman N, Nolan J, O'Donovan O, Au Eong KG, Beatty S John Nolan 2005
Measurement of macular pigment: Raman spectroscopy versus heterochromatic flicker photometry O'Gorman N, Nolan J, O'Donovan O, Wong HB, Au Eong KG, Beatty S John Nolan 2005
A novel index for predicting intraocular pressure reduction following cataract surgery Pacheco J, Mahmood U, Nolan J, Beatty S John Nolan 2005
Macular pigment and percentage of body fat O'Donovan O, Kavanagh H, Stack J, Harrison M, Muldoon A, Mellerio J, Beatty S John Nolan 2004
Macular pigment optical density and its relationship with serum and dietary levels of lutein and zeaxanthin Nolan J, Kavanagh H, O'Donovan O John Nolan 2004
Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population Murray IJ, Henson DB, Carden D, Koh H, Boulton ME John Nolan 2001
The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration Koh H, Phil M, Henson D, Boulton M John Nolan 2000
Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument Koh HH, Carden D, Murray IJ John Nolan 2000
Photocoagulation of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes in age related macular degeneration: the impact of the macular photocoagulation study in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland Au Eong KG, McLeod D, Bishop PN John Nolan 1999
Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration Boulton M, Henson D, Koh HH, Murray IJ John Nolan 1999
The respective relationships between lipoprotein profile, macular pigment optical density, and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin Loane E, Nolan JM, Beatty S John Nolan 2010
Estimation of effective lens position using a method independent of preoperative keratometry readings Dooley I, Charalampidou S, Nolan J, Loughman J, Molloy L, Beatty S John Nolan 2011
The natural history of tractional cystoid macular edema Charalampidou S, Nolan J, Beatty S John Nolan 2012
Visual performance in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration undergoing treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab Sabour-Pickett S, Loughman J, Nolan JM, Stack J, Pesudovs K, Meagher KA, Beatty S John Nolan 2013
Investigation of genetic variation in scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SCARB1) and association with serum carotenoids McKay GJ, Loane E, Nolan JM, Patterson CC, Meyers KJ, Mares JA, Yonova-Doing E, Hammond CJ, Beatty S, Silvestri G John Nolan 2013
What is meso-zeaxanthin, and where does it come from? Nolan JM, Meagher K, Kashani S, Beatty S John Nolan 2013
Visual outcome after antioxidant supplementation Beatty S, Nolan JM, Muldrew KA, Woodside J, Stevenson MR, Chakravarthy U John Nolan 2013
Low macular pigment optical density is associated with lower cognitive performance in a large, population-based sample of older adults Feeney J, Finucane C, Savva GM, Cronin H, Beatty S, Nolan JM, Kenny RA 2013
Concordance of macular pigment measurements obtained using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry, dual-wavelength autofluorescence, and single-wavelength reflectance Dennison JL, Stack J, Beatty S, Nolan JM 2013
Macular pigment and its contribution to vision Loskutova E, Nolan J, Howard A, Beatty S John Nolan 2013
Re: lutein supplementation improves visual performance in Chinese drivers: 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study: the importance of supplementing with all three macular carotenoids. Nolan J, Beatty S, Dennison J John Nolan 2013
Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trials (CREST): Design and Methodology of the CREST Randomized Controlled Trials. Akuffo KO1, Beatty S, Stack J, Dennison J, O'Regan S, Meagher KA, Peto T, Nolan J. Sarah O'Regan 2014
SUPPLEMENTATION WITH THREE DIFFERENT MACULAR CAROTENOID FORMULATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION. Sabour-Pickett S1, Beatty S, Connolly E, Loughman J, Stack J, Howard A, Klein R, Klein BE, Meuer SM, Myers CE, Akuffo KO, Nolan JM Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo 2014
Verification of Meso-Zeaxanthin in Fish John M Nolan, Stephen Beatty, Katie A Meagher, Alan N Howard, David Kelly and David I Thurnham 2014
Measuring Visual Function Using the MultiQuity System: Comparison with an Established Device Patrycja Smolarek-Kasprzak, John M. Nolan, Stephen Beatty, Jessica Dennison, Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, Robert Kuchling, Jim Stack, and Graham O 2014
Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the Republic of Ireland Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, John Nolan, Jim Stack, Rachel Moran, Joanne Feeney, Rose Anne Kenny, Tunde Peto, Cara Dooley, Aisling M O'Halloran, Hilary Cronin, Stephen Beatty 2015
Sustained supplementation and monitored response with differing carotenoid formulations in early age-related macular degeneration KO Akuffo, JM Nolan, AN Howard, R Moran, J Stack, R Klein, BE Klein, SM Meuer, S Sabour-Pickett, DI Thurnham and S Beatty Macular Pigment Research Group 2015
Assessment of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin concentrations in dietary supplements by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography Alfonso Prado?Cabrero, Stephen Beatty, Alan Howard, Jim Stack, Philipp Bettin, John M. Nolan 2015
Concordance of Macular Pigment Measurement Using Customized Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry and Fundus Autofluorescence in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo; Stephen Beatty; Jim Stack; Tunde Peto; Irene Leung; Laura Corcoran; Rebecca Power; John M. Nolan 2015
Lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin content of eggs laid by hens supplemented with free and esterified xanthophylls John M. Nolan, Katherine A. Meagher, Alan N. Howard, Rachel Moran, David I. Thurnham and Stephen Beatty 2016
Visual Function and Its Relationship with Severity of Early, and Activity of Neovascular, Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Loughman, S Sabour-Pickett, JM Nolan, B Klein, R Klein. J Macular Pigment Research Group 2015
Relationship between macular pigment and visual function in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, John M Nolan, Tunde Peto, Jim Stack, Irene Leung, Laura Corcoran, Stephen Beatty Macular Pigment Research Group 2016
Enrichment of Macular Pigment Enhances Contrast Sensitivity in Subjects Free of Retinal Disease: Central Retinal Enrichment Supplementation Trials John M. Nolan, Rebecca Power, Jim Stringham, Jessica Dennison, Jim Stack, David Kelly, Rachel Moran, Kwadwo O. Akuffo, Laura Corcoran, Stephen Beatty 2016